Hurricane - This is a large atmospheric vortex with a wind speed of up to 120 km / h, and in the surface layer - up to 200 km / h.
Storm - a long, very strong wind with a speed of more than 20 m / s, usually observed when a cyclone passes and is accompanied by strong waves at sea and destruction on land.
Tornado - an atmospheric vortex that occurs in a thundercloud and spreads downward, often to the very surface of the Earth in the form of a dark cloud arm or trunk tens and hundreds of meters in diameter. It does not exist for long, moving with the cloud.
The danger to people in such natural phenomena is the destruction of road and bridge pavements, structures, overhead power transmission and communication lines, ground pipelines, as well as damage to people by debris from destroyed structures, glass fragments flying at high speed. In addition, people can be killed and injured if buildings are completely destroyed. During snow and dust storms, snow drifts and dust accumulations (“black storms”) on fields, roads and settlements, as well as water pollution, are dangerous.
The main signs of hurricanes, storms and tornadoes are: increased wind speed and a sharp drop in atmospheric pressure; torrential rains and storm surges; violent falling of snow and ground dust.
If you live in an area prone to hurricanes, storms and tornadoes, check out:
- warning signals about the impending natural disaster;
- ways of protecting people and increasing the resistance of buildings (structures) to the effects of hurricane wind and storm surge of water;
- the rules of behavior of people during the onset of hurricanes, snow and sand storms, tornadoes;
- methods and means of eliminating the consequences of hurricanes, tornadoes, storm surge of water, snow and sand storms, as well as methods of rendering assistance to victims who find themselves in the rubble of destroyed buildings and structures;
- places of shelter in the nearest basements, shelters or the strongest and most stable buildings of your family members, relatives and neighbors;
- exit routes and areas of placement during organized evacuation from high-risk areas;
-addresses and telephone numbers of civil defense and emergency situations, administration and commission for emergency situations of your locality.
After receiving the storm alert signal, proceed to:
-reinforcement of the roof, stove and ventilation pipes;
- closing of windows in attic spaces (shutters, boards made of boards or plywood);
-releasing balconies and yard area from fire hazardous items;
- to collect food and water supplies for 2-3 days in case of evacuation to a safe area, as well as autonomous lighting sources (lanterns, kerosene lamps, candles);
-Move from light buildings to more durable buildings or civil defense defenses.
How to behave during a hurricane, storm or tornado
If a hurricane (storm, tornado) catches you in a building, move away from the windows and take a safe place near the walls of the interior, in the corridor, near built-in wardrobes, in bathrooms, toilets, storerooms, in sturdy cabinets, under tables. Extinguish the fire in the stoves, turn off the electricity, close the taps on the gas networks.
In the dark, use lanterns, lamps, candles; turn on the radio to receive information from the Civil Defense and Emergencies Department and the Emergency Situations Commission; if possible, stay in a buried shelter, in shelters, cellars, etc. If a hurricane, storm or tornado catches you on the streets of a settlement, stay as far away as possible from light structures, buildings, bridges, overpasses, power lines, masts, trees, rivers, lakes and industrial facilities. To protect against flying debris and glass fragments, use plywood sheets, cardboard and plastic boxes, boards and other improvised means. Try to quickly hide in basements, cellars and anti-radiation shelters available in settlements. Do not enter damaged buildings, as they may collapse with new gusts of wind.
Take cover in buildings during a snowstorm. If you find yourself in a field or on a country road, go out onto the main roads, which are periodically cleared and where there is a high probability of helping you.
In a dust storm, cover your face with a gauze bandage, a handkerchief, a piece of cloth, and your eyes with glasses. When you receive a signal about the approach of a tornado, you must immediately go down to the shelter, basement of a house or cellar, or hide under a bed and other durable furniture. If a tornado catches you in an open area, take cover at the bottom of a road ditch, in pits, ditches, narrow ravines, snuggling tightly to the ground, covering your head with clothes or tree branches. Do not stay in the vehicle, get out and take cover as described above.
On August 8, 2019, a storm warning was announced in the Moscow region. A thunderstorm, downpour, wind up to 25 meters per second was expected. Central channels interrupted broadcasting for emergency messages - this has never happened before. But nothing happened. Although it didn't hurt to play it safe: the capital remembers more than one deadly hurricane. In the 20th century, Moscow was “blown away” three times.
The deadliest tornado was June 29, 1904. Then, according to some sources, more than 100 people died. The element swept through the east of the capital. Several thousand houses were destroyed. Lefortovo and Sokolniki suffered from the tornado. The settlements of Lyublino and Karacharovo were completely destroyed. The wind speed then just reached 25 m / s.
After 80 years, history repeated itself: on June 9, 1984, two atmospheric fronts collided over the European territory of Russia. As a result, 8 deadly craters were formed, which passed through the center of the country. The Ivanovo region suffered the most. In Moscow, wind gusts reached 28 m / s. In Serebryany Bor, Izmailovsky Park, trees were felled in several streets.
14 years later - again in June - the element claimed the lives, according to various sources, from eight to 11 people. About 200 more were injured. Over 48 thousand trees were felled, 2,157 residential buildings were damaged, and transport was disrupted.
The next hurricane was not long in coming. On July 24, 2001, the capital was not only blown away by the wind, but also flooded. In the north of Moscow, 2 metro stations were closed, rivers formed instead of roads in the VVC area. The damage amounted to more than 1 billion rubles.
On July 13, 2016, wind gusts in Moscow reached 21 meters per second. The elements tore off roofs from houses, knocked down trees, and twisted cars. 9 people died in Moscow, two more - in the suburbs.
Well, the most destructive hurricane is considered to be on May 29, 2017. Then 18 people died, about 150 were hospitalized. The pyramid of Alexander Golod collapsed in the Istra district, in Korolev a squally wind tore out the cross on the central dome of the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin, a tower crane fell at a construction site in Lyubertsy, the roof of the Bolshoi Theater and the Grand Kremlin Palace was damaged.
Fallen tree trunks broke 12 battlements of the Moscow Kremlin wall.
According to some reports, on that day, wind gusts reached 31 meters per second.
People living on the planet in different eras have repeatedly faced various disasters, not the least of which are tornadoes and their derivatives. The wind is a very powerful element, it is difficult to argue with that. Its strength is enough to demolish almost any human-built structures, lift cars, objects and people into the air and carry them over great distances. Large-scale disasters of this kind happen relatively infrequently, so any hurricane, tornado, typhoon or tornado is an extraordinary event that attracts worldwide attention.
Hurricanes: Causes of Natural Disasters
What is a hurricane? This phenomenon is caused by high speed winds. The reason for the occurrence of hurricanes is simple: the wind appears due to the difference in atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the more expressive the pressure amplitude, the greater the wind force. The direction of the air flow is from an area of higher pressure to a place with lower values.
As a rule, hurricanes are caused by cyclones and anticyclones, which quickly move from place to place. Cyclones are characterized by low pressure, anticyclones, on the contrary, high. Winds in such huge air masses blow in different directions, depending on the hemisphere.
Relatively speaking, any hurricane is an air whirlpool. The causes of hurricanes are reduced to the appearance of an area of low pressure, into which air rushes at a breakneck speed. Such phenomena occur throughout any season, but on the territory of Russia they most often appear in the summer.
Tornado, storm, hurricane: differences
Strong winds can be called by different names: typhoons, hurricanes, storms, tornadoes or storms. They differ not only in name, but also in speed, method of education and duration. For example, a storm is the weakest windy hypostasis. The wind blows during a storm at a speed of about 20 m / s. The phenomenon lasts a maximum of several days in a row, and the coverage area is more than a hundred kilometers, while a hurricane can rage for about 12 days, bringing chaos and destruction. In this case, a hurricane vortex flies at a speed of 30 m / s.
The tornado, which long-suffering Americans call a tornado, is worth mentioning. This is a mesocyclone, an air vortex, the pressure in the center of which drops to record lows. The funnel in the form of a trunk or a whip increases during movement and, sucking in the earth and objects, changes color to a darker one. The wind speed exceeds 50 m / s, possessing enormous destructive power. The diameter of the vortex column is sometimes hundreds of meters. A pillar descending from a thundercloud pulls in objects, cars and buildings with a truly gigantic force. The tornado sometimes captures hundreds of kilometers, destroying everything that appears on the road.
Hurricanes, storms, tornadoes are sometimes observed on Russian territory. In particular, hurricanes most often occur in the northern regions: in Kamchatka, in the Khabarovsk Territory, in Chukotka, on the island of Sakhalin. But tornadoes in Russia are an infrequent phenomenon. One of the first mentions of such a phenomenon dates back to the 15th century. A tornado of 1984 in the city of Ivanovo also brought significant destruction. And in 2004 and 2009, the hurricane whirlwind did not bring serious damage.
Strong winds in Russia
Although tornadoes are rare in Russia, hurricanes and storms, of course, do happen. In terms of strength, they, fortunately, are not as significant as the famous "Camilla" or "Katrina", but they also lead to destruction and casualties. In addition to those mentioned above, the most notable hurricanes in Russia should be noted.
8 people were killed, 157 injured. More than 2 thousand buildings and power lines were damaged. The wind speed was 31 m / s.
Residential buildings in Perm and the region were damaged, water supply was disrupted, power lines were destroyed.
The hail massively destroyed vast areas of agricultural land. The roofs of many residential buildings were blown away by the wind. The damage amounted to more than 50 million rubles.
One person died, 25 were injured. The trees are uprooted, some are broken. Roofs are damaged.
Glasses are smashed, roofs are torn off. The wind exceeded the speed of 28 m / s. Power transmission towers were destroyed, wheat crops were damaged.
The wind knocked down the shields, 3 people lost their lives. In general, the area of the hurricane spread to the central regions of Russia. In Moscow, the airport even stopped its work. In the Tula area, a bus was overturned, trees were knocked down, houses were damaged.
Six people died, 58 people were seriously injured. More than 200 pillars were knocked down, as a result of which thousands of people were left without light.
The hurricane also touched Russia: in Moscow, residential buildings were damaged, in St. Petersburg the Neva overflowed its banks, in Kaliningrad a whirlwind knocked down a New Year tree. The Pskov region was almost completely de-energized.
South of Russia
The disaster struck Vladikavkaz: many buildings were destroyed, a lot of trees were knocked down, 7 people suffered from the hurricane. Also, the wind, flying at a speed of more than 30 m / s, and heavy wet snow de-energized the Kuban, Rostov region, Dagestan, Adygea, Stavropol and Kalmykia (a state of emergency had to be introduced in Elista).
A crazy whirlwind, rushing at a speed of up to 40 m / s, led to the death of 2 people and massively damaged power lines.
The cyclone from Lake Baikal brought with it a downpour and strong squalls. People lost power, sewers were flooded on two streets, roofs were torn off from houses. A teenager died from an electric shock.
Cars were damaged, communication was interrupted for some time.
Volga and Ural
52 people were wounded, three were killed. The wind tore off wires and roofs. Falling trees damaged power lines.
A flurry blew down the roofs of houses, there are victims (woman), 11 people were injured. An emergency regime has been introduced.
More than 40 settlements suffered from the rampant disaster, residential and administrative buildings were damaged.
Based on the above information, we can conclude that there are hurricanes in Russia, but their scale is incomparable with those that rage in other parts of the world. Why is nature so merciful to the Russian expanses? The consequences of hurricanes on Russian territories are certainly painful for the victims, but still not as fatal and voluminous as in the United States or Australia.
The fact is that for a hurricane to occur, it is necessary that the air filled with heat and water particles come into contact with the cold one. And this must certainly happen over a cool surface. Therefore, most often tornadoes and hurricanes occur in the coastal areas of the southern seas. Russia does not fit into such a scheme.
"When the ocean is raging ..."
A hurricane at sea is called a storm. At the beginning of the 19th century, an admiral of the English fleet by the name of Beaufort developed a special scale that is used to measure the strength of the wind to this day. This grading system operates both at sea and on land. The scale has a 12-point gradation. Already from 4 points, waves up to one and a half meters rise, then it is already impossible to speak with the wind, and it is very difficult to walk against the air stream. In a 9-point storm, the wind grows stronger up to 24 m / s, and the waves reach a height of 10 meters. The maximum, 12-point hurricane destroys everything in its path. Small and medium-sized vessels are the first to be hit, for which there is almost no chance of surviving in such a wind. The sea foams and rages wildly. The hurricane is moving at a speed of over 32 m / s.
The typhoon is also related to the oceans. This is a cyclone that occurs over the surface of the Atlantic, and it got its name in Asia. In translation, the word means too strong wind. Up to eight typhoons hit the Sakhalin Oblast throughout the year. There are also Pacific typhoon hurricanes. This type of element has the most disastrous consequences.
Some tropical cyclones are called super typhoons because of their eccentricity and terrible power. Typhoon called "Georgia" is an example of such a hurricane. It suddenly fell in 1970 on the south of Sakhalin and mercilessly demolished everything that was possible. Unfortunately, victims could not be avoided.
The deadliest hurricanes in the world
We can often observe examples of hurricanes even over the past 20 years. The ten most destructive elements include:
- "Pauline", which raged in Mexico in 1997.
- Mitch, which destroyed the countries of Central America in 1998; the force of the hurricane sometimes reached 320 km / h, and the number of human casualties was in the tens of thousands.
- Category 5 Hurricane Kenna destroyed the city of Nayarit; the wind uprooted trees, destroyed buildings and roads, and only by a lucky chance people did not die.
- Typhoon Ivan attacked the Caribbean and the United States in 2004 and caused billions of dollars in damage.
- Wilma destroyed the coasts of Cuba and the United States in 2005; she claimed 62 human lives.
- A huge vortex 900 km long swept over the vastness of the United States in 2008; colossal damage was inflicted in 14 hours of rampant elements; a wind of such strength was named "Hayk".
- Charlie toured Jamaica, Cuba and the USA in 2004; wind force reached 240 km / h.
- In 2012, a hurricane named Sandy killed 113 people; the elements raged in the eastern United States, especially the state of New York.
Tornado with a female character
It is interesting that the most destructive consequences of hurricanes are observed from those elements that are named by female names.
These are the most capricious and unpredictable hurricanes, reminiscent of a lady in a hysterical fit. Maybe this is a prejudice, but judge for yourself:
- One of the worst hurricanes in history is Katrina. This deadly wind hit the United States in 2005. Extensive floods, about 2 thousand human lives, hundreds of missing persons - this is the tribute collected by the elements in that fateful year.
- An earlier, but no less terrible hurricane hit India and Bangladesh in 1970. They called him strange - "Flea". More than 500 thousand people died from floods provoked by an unprecedented storm.
- A Chinese typhoon with the romantic name "Nina" wiped out the large Banqiao dam, which caused a flood, as a result of which, according to rough estimates, 230 thousand people died.
- Camilla flew over the Mississippi in 1969. Meteorologists could not measure the strength of the wind, as the instruments were destroyed by the raging elements. It is believed that hurricane gusts reached 340 km / h. Hundreds of bridges were damaged, many houses were damaged, 113 people drowned, thousands were injured.
In fairness, it should be noted that the worst hurricane, named San Calixto, has nothing to do with female names. However, it became the deadliest on record. Tens of thousands of people died, almost all buildings were destroyed, the wind tore the bark from the trees before pulling them out by the roots. A huge tsunami washed away everything that blocked her path. Modern experts believe that the force of the hurricane was at least 350 km / h. This terrible event took place in 1780 in the Caribbean.
Storm! The storm is coming soon! Or how to measure the strength of a tornado
In order to measure the strength of the wind, again, the Beaufort scale is used, somewhat modified, refined and supplemented. A device called an anemometer measures the speed of air flows. For example, the last Hurricane Patricia recorded in Texas had a force of 325 km / h. This was enough to carry a large train into the water.
The destructive force of the wind starts at 8 points. This corresponds to an air speed of 60 km / h. This wind breaks thick trees. Further, the wind increases to 70-90 km / h and begins to demolish fences and small structures. A 10-point storm uproots trees and destroys capital buildings. At the same time, the wind force reaches 100-110 km / h. Strengthening, the element throws off the iron cars, like matchboxes, knocks down the pillars. A hurricane with a power of 12 points produces total destruction, sweeping at a speed of over 130 km / h. Fortunately, hurricanes are so deadly in Russia.
A hurricane is a serious element, therefore, immediately after the wind stops, you should not leave the shelter, you must wait a few hours before going out into the light. The consequences of tornadoes, hurricanes, storms are very impressive. These are fallen trees, torn off roofs, flooded sewers, destroyed roads, damaged power supply pylons. In addition, the waves caused by the wind can turn into tsunamis, sweeping away everything living and built by people. When dams are destroyed, global floods are inevitable, and if wastewater gets into drinking tanks, it often provokes an uncontrolled growth of infectious diseases and even epidemics.
But life will gradually begin to recover, because rescue units will take over the work, which ordinary residents can also help. In order to minimize the consequences as much as possible, and at least avoid human casualties, there are rules of conduct before, during and after the rampant of the elements.
Rules of conduct in extreme natural conditions
Correct and thoughtful actions during a hurricane are incapable of saving the life of both the person himself and his loved ones. After meteorologists detect a hurricane and calculate its trajectory, this information is necessarily communicated to the population. Typically, a standard warning signal is given. all channels of television and radio broadcasting and transmitting the necessary public information.
The preparatory stage includes the following steps:
- sources of information remain included so as not to miss important points;
- students must be allowed to go home without fail;
- if the hurricane is already starting to rage, then the students take refuge in the basement;
- it is necessary to prepare supplies of water, food and medicines for about 3 days;
- lanterns, lamps, candles, portable stoves must be available;
- glass is pasted over in a cross or star shape;
- shop windows are protected by large shields;
- balconies are cleared of objects and trash that can be blown away by the wind;
- windowsills must be empty;
- in villages, cattle are driven into a fortified barn, equipped with a supply of food and water; summer buildings are fastened as far as possible;
- the windows on the windward side are tightly closed, and on the opposite, on the contrary, they remain open.
What actions should be taken in case of a hurricane upon hearing of its approach? First, turn off electrical appliances and gas ovens, fix the taps. Secondly, take with you a suitcase with the most necessary things and documents. Next, transfer the stocks of food, medicine, water to a safe shelter and take refuge there with your family. If there is no such shelter, then in the house you need to hide under reliable furniture, in niches, doorways. In no case should you approach the windows that must first be curtained.
In the event that the elements are found in an open area, any ravine or depression can serve as a refuge. Bridges, or rather the places under them, can become an excellent shelter. Stay away from billboards, torn wires, narrow passages (crowd hazard), lowlands, as there is the possibility of flooding. Before a hurricane, it is imperative to agree with loved ones about the meeting place in case of various unforeseen circumstances.
After completing an element:
- you should not light matches, since gas leakage is not excluded;
- you can not use untreated water, as it may be heavily contaminated;
- you should find out if your neighbors need first aid.
Hurricanes in Russia do not happen often, but it is still necessary to know these rules, because natural disasters, in connection with climatic changes, tend to change their localization.
Any phenomenon of nature, even very destructive, despite the threat to life, evokes a feeling of admiration and attracts the close attention of all those who like the mighty force of nature. Television channels often demonstrate what can be expected from the revelry of the elements, and educational programs try to show the very structure of this or that phenomenon. Scientists are constantly studying natural disasters in order to understand whether humanity can survive at the moment of the most important apocalyptic truth.
Many residents of Central Russia note that storms, tornadoes and hurricanes have become commonplace in the past couple of years. Just like SMS, coming to our mobile phones from the Ministry of Emergency Situations almost every day with a warning of an impending natural disaster. This happens after the Ministry of Emergency Situations receives information about unfavorable weather conditions from the Hydrometeorological Center, and then it is transmitted to mobile operators, who send SMS messages. In addition to sending SMS and interacting with the media, there is also an emergency notification system, which provides for the display of messages on video screens specially installed in cities. But mainly large cities can afford their service ...
So what happens to nature? Is it true that atypical hurricanes and tornadoes have become quite frequent in the center of Russia, for example, in Moscow, Vladimir, Nizhny Novgorod and other regions? Or does everything remain within the normal range? Let's take a look at this issue.
July 13, 2016.
In 2016, residents of the village of Kolyubakino of the Ruzsky district of the Moscow region faced an unprecedented natural disaster. The tornado left the strongest destruction in the Kolyubakinsky and Staroruzsky rural settlements. Along the Dorokhovo-Ruza highway, he destroyed all the trees - some had a broken trunk or a crown collapsed, and some were uprooted. In the very village of Kolyubakino, under the roar of thunder and a flash of lightning, the wind tore off the shields from the hockey rink, which were nailed to the sides. Shields flew into the air and fell onto the roadway. The administration and residents of the village did not receive warnings of an impending storm from the meteorological service. It was 26 degrees outside. It was just beginning to get dark, and young people were still walking on the streets. But in one minute the sky turned black, there was a roll of thunder, and the rain lined up the walls of the water. The element arose suddenly ...
May 29, 2017.
The most striking example of a rampant natural disaster is a devastating hurricane that swept across Moscow in the spring of 2017. A powerful hurricane and downpour covered Central Russia on May 29, 2017. A storm resembling a tornado passed through the Moscow region. More than 200 people suffered in connection with the natural disaster. Intense rains did not stop for several days. The hurricane uprooted trees from the ground, tore off roofs of buildings, overturned cars, tore off billboards. Electricity supply in Moscow, as well as Vladimir, Kaluga, Ryazan and Tula regions was disrupted. Lightning damaged two passenger aircraft. The consequences of this weather anomaly can still be observed in the form of trees uprooted along the roadsides in some remote areas of the Moscow region. Such a wind, which was on May 29, was not in the entire history of instrumental meteorological observations in the capital region of Russia. In some places, its speed reached hurricane values. Such a natural phenomenon is not typical for May. A leading employee of one of the weather centers noted "Incredibly huge amount of rainfall" , although they fell out unevenly:
“- Let's say that 60% of the monthly norm fell into Klin in just 12 hours. This is three buckets of water for every square meter of city streets ", - explained the expert. According to him, the so-called point of occlusion became the reason for the revelry of the elements. This is a rare atmospheric phenomenon, when three atmospheric fronts converge in one place - occlusions, warm front and cold front. Warm air in the form of a funnel gradually rises up, and its place is taken by cold air coming from the sides. The interface that occurs when the cold and warm fronts meet is called the occlusion front surface. Occlusion fronts are associated with intense precipitation and strong thunderstorms.
From the book "Ezoosmos" by Anastasia Novykh:
“How fragile is our human civilization, so proud of its high technologies! One breath of the Earth, and instead of cities - ruins, instead of useful technology - a pile of unnecessary scrap metal, instead of a peaceful society - clans fighting for a piece of bread and land. How unreliable and illusory is all that material, on the accumulation of which people spend their whole life. How many nerves, mental strength is wasted! And how much black negativity is thrown by a person into the surrounding space, forcing not only people to suffer from this, but also nature and all living things in it. After all such atrocities, can it be surprising that Earthly patience comes to an end? "
April 21, 2018.
One year later, on April 21, 2018, a hurricane hit Moscow and the Moscow region again, in power comparable to last year's disaster. The weather that day was extremely unstable: the first half of the day, according to the temperature background, corresponded to the end of May, it was almost summer-hot, and the evening - to the beginning of March, in some areas it started to snow. Hundreds of trees were knocked down by a squally wind, roofs were torn off, weakly fortified metal structures were demolished, and in Solnechnogorsk near Moscow, in the midst of the school year, one of the city's schools was completely left without a roof. Despite the timely warning of the residents of the capital region about stormy weather and the closure of all parks in Moscow, this time, just like a year ago, the victims were not without.
Why, despite the warnings, did not everyone rush home, staying on the street or in vehicles? Psychologists note that the residents of the capital have once again simply underestimated the danger.
« —People, as before, consider Moscow to be protected from any disasters. And the climate is changing, but you still need to get used to it. " , - says psychotherapist Natalya Vetkina.
Have there been similar hurricanes and tornadoes in the central region of Russia in previous years? If so, how often did they occur? Let's take a short excursion into history.
The first mention of a tornado in Russia refers to 1406 year. The Trinity Chronicle reports that near Nizhny Novgorod "the whirlwind is terribly terrible" lifted the team together with the horse and man into the air and carried it so far that they became "invisible byst". The next day, the cart and horse were found hanging on a tree on the other side of the Volga, and the man was missing.
The most destructive was the hurricane that passed through Moscow June 29, 1904 ... The hurricane that originated in the Tula province passed over the eastern outskirts of Moscow towards Yaroslavl. This tornado uprooted and twisted absolutely all the trees (some up to a meter in coverage) in the historical area of Moscow, Annenhof Grove, which was located from 1730 to 1904 in the Lefortovo district. After this cataclysm, the grove was no longer restored (in Soviet times, a complex of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute was built in its place). And in Sokolnicheskaya Roshcha there was a complete destruction of the forest in a strip with a width of 150 to 300 meters. Here is what the newspaper "Russian Word" wrote:
"- About 4 o'clock from the overhanging clouds it became dark; the wind died down, there were several deafening thunderclaps. Gray clouds swirled quickly in one place. Large hailstones were falling. The sky was smoking, and a cloud funnel began to descend to the ground. The picture was majestic. not a breeze, but the sky is seething. The cloud pillar was growing, the clouds boiled. Suddenly a terrible sight joined the hum that was rushing from the side of the spinning column. The grove near the Lyublino station began to disappear from the face of the earth. Park in 8 acres of NK Golofteev does not exist. Trees fell, roofs fell from dachas, walls shook, earth trembled. "
An observer at the Biryulevo station, which was located five kilometers west of the vortex, reported that "At 16 hours 20-27 minutes there was a strong hail, the clouds went in a strip, in places in the form of mountains, and in the east - northeast a black shapeless mass was visible, breaking through the lower layer and falling to the ground in the form of smoke. Another evidence: "At 5 o'clock in the afternoon it started to rain. A hail the size of a pigeon's egg came. A huge cloud appeared in the direction from the village of Kolomenskoye, which seemed to be connected to the ground. We thought it was a fire ... But the black pillar was rapidly approaching; there was a hum, a whistle and a roar. Clouds of sand rose. And suddenly everything started spinning. There was a terrible crash. Roofs were blown off the houses and carried through the air, carts with horses on the highway were instantly overturned. We all rushed about and lost our heads. They rushed to close the windows ... They began to pray ... " The tornado of 1904 sucked out all the water from the Moskva River, exposing its bottom. Eyewitnesses were horrified when they saw how the water returned in a continuous stream, falling from the sky - the tornado disappeared as suddenly as it appeared. So, this destructive tornado swept through the then outskirts of Moscow, now entering the city limits, sweeping away everything in its path. The exact number of victims is unknown.
In June 1984 year several tornadoes of enormous power swept through the central regions of the RSFSR. The strongest tornado was observed near the city of Ivanovo, which caused incredible destruction. What caused the tornado to form? In early June 1984, dry and hot weather set in after a long period of high atmospheric pressure in the central European part of the country. But on June 9, two atmospheric fronts collided here, one of which was moving from the southwest, and the other from the north. The collision of two air masses led to the formation of at least three tornado funnels, which had a high destructive power. They passed in the northern and northeastern directions through the Moscow, Kalinin (Tver), Ivanovo, Yaroslavl and Kostroma regions. Also, strong squall winds were observed on this day in the Gorky (Nizhny Novgorod), Ryazan, Kirov, Saratov regions, Mordovia, Chuvash and Mari ASSR. But the tornado that passed through the Ivanovo region turned out to be the most destructive. The wind speed inside the funnel was supposedly about 100 meters per second! A terrible natural cataclysm in the Ivanovo region made an impression on the whole country. People from all over the Soviet Union came to help, and in the shortest possible time, thanks to the general unification, new modern houses were built for those who were left homeless. In 1986, Vasily Belov's novel "Everything is ahead" was published, which mentions the Ivanovsky tornado. And in 1988, director Nikolai Gubenko shot the film "Forbidden Zone" about the events of June 1984. The shooting took place directly at the scene of the tragedy - on the territory of the Ivanovo region.
A hurricane that passed through the territory of Moscow and the Moscow region at night June 20-21, 1998 , was largely a surprise to both specialists and experts. A surprise both in the short and long term: not only did no one expect it on that particular night, but this hurricane also became one of the strongest in the history of the capital region, taking an honorable second place in the twentieth century. The element again reminded of itself - this hurricane was only slightly weaker than the famous tornado of 1904. The maximum wind speed exceeded 30 meters per second. By itself, this indicator is the initial, the weakest for hurricanes. However, the fact that the elements were raging in the metropolis, among trees, buildings, various structures located next to each other and in conditions of a high concentration of people, gave this hurricane a special destructive force. Utilities estimate that about 45,000 trees fell as a result of the hurricane in Moscow and its suburbs. Trees caused major damage to cars, buildings (about 2,100 buildings were destroyed), power lines (almost 200 streets were de-energized), introduced the capital into a state of transport collapse, blocking highways. The total number of victims is estimated at 200 people.
А June 3, 2009 The 13-thousandth city of Krasnozavodsk near Moscow, located in the Sergiev-Posad region, was covered with a tornado, rare for these latitudes. His speed reached 90 km / h, he damaged 42 apartment buildings and more than 20 cars, knocked down poles and trees, disrupted telephone communications in the city, and several dozen houses lost their roofs. The strongest tornado passed through the five-story buildings on Novaya Street - walls collapsed and window panes flew out, dozens of city residents sought medical help. In the city, 10 apartments burned out due to a short circuit in the electrical wiring, two schools and the House of Children's Art were damaged. According to eyewitnesses, the tornado took only three minutes to destroy three streets. Residents of the city noted that they saw such hurricanes only in films about the United States: a black pole pulled out poplars by the roots and broke them in half like matches, cars parked under the windows threw them like toys, and tore off balconies from high-rise buildings.
REFERENCE: tornado or tornado?
Tornado Is a strong vortex, it always forms under cumulus clouds and develops in a vertical spiral. The tornado is easy to recognize by its characteristic dark cloud column, the diameter of which can reach several kilometers. The tornado always descends from the cloud in the form of a cone-shaped funnel, tapering towards the base near the ground. Sometimes the height of the tornado can reach ten kilometers, and the diameter of the widest part of the funnel can be more than 50 kilometers. Rotation in such funnels occurs not clockwise, but against it, a very low pressure is created inside, which literally tears everything that gets there to shreds. But there are examples that contradict this statement. Sometimes tornadoes keep a living organism alive. For example, chickens caught in a tornado funnel sometimes break out of there alive, but completely bald. Scientists agree on the version that the center of the storm is forming inside the tornado. Experts call it the "eye of the tornado." There is no movement, but the entire mass of air revolves around it, developing a speed of up to 200 meters per second on average. Perhaps it is in this vacuum that the surviving victims fall.
What is the tornado different from the tornado? Practically nothing. In essence, these are identical phenomena. Scientists today distinguish between several forms of tornado, for each territorial geographical locality is characterized by one or another. Solorals in the form of a column, barrels, cone and glasses often arise in the territory of the central European part of Russia, so there are air vertical vortices that carry destruction, began to be called a consonant word "death" by the Slavic root of "Tornado".
In North America, vortices often occur, similar to the scoring rope or trunk of an elephant, the pipe, the top edge of which expanded from the maternal cloud. Therefore, they are called a little different: TROMB - in French "trumpet" or "Tornado" - Spanish "rotating". Tornado - These are the tornadoes that arise mainly in America. Arriving here for several centuries ago, Spanish conquistadors gave their name to the vortices, it was taken here, and today it is used in the countries of the Western Hemisphere, although the official name of the vertical vortex is "Trombus". Most cases of Tornado in the United States fall on 13 ill-fated central states called "Alley Tornado". Since the end of Spring, the Earth is waiting for the arrival of destructive hurricanes. Alley Tornado, which extends from South Dakota to Northern Texas, is one of the most dangerous places not only in the United States, but also on the entire planet. From year to year here you can observe a huge number of hurricanes and tornadoes. With the arrival of summer, warm air from the Gulf of Mexico is found with cold air masses from the south of Canada. Air flows are connected, gain strength and speed. As a result, hurricanes are formed by huge devastating power, which turn into a tornado. They create the most powerful air flow on the planet, which develop speed in funnels to five hundred km per hour. These vortices can in a matter of minutes to erase whole settlements from the face of the Earth, lift in the air at home and cars, turning into the dust what people are accustomed to consider their values.
But let's return to the main issue, hurricanes in the central part of Russia. As we can see, natural disasters happened here before, bringing huge destruction and inconvenience to people. But, if in the old years it was a rather rare phenomenon, what do we see now? If we consider only the Central Region of Russia, then since 2016, the strongest hurricanes here occur with a noticeable regularity, at least once a year and even more often. After all, we told only the most destructive disasters in the region. Those. Over the past 2 years, the climate has changed dramatically, this is a fact that it is already impossible to challenge. Destructive natural phenomena occur with increasing frequency. And many people finally noticed that something was wrong on the planet. Not as it was before, when we constantly wanted something, when we could not be able to rejoice in trifles and thank God for what we have, for the most important thing - the opportunity to live and spiritually develop.
Some of us thought, what is the reason for such global climatic changes? And even those who were a long-term painstaking work, conducted a real research work. That's what you managed to figure out! It turns out We are not the first who faced global natural cataclysms. Similar periods of sharp climate change have already experienced previous civilizations, for example, Atlantis, the existence of which, as well as its death, has already confirmed scientists to date. What happened to this civilization, why nature wrapped her anger on it, as the ideology of the descendants of the Atlantov affected the modern worldview of humanity and why we, just like the Atlanta approached the last drawing? Answers to all these questions you will find in a new program, published on the channel of the alto TV "FROM ATHEIST TO HOLINESS". The program is showing a film "ATLANTIS. ELITE IN SEARCH OF IMMORTALITY ", which tells the detailed history of the antediluvian highly developed civilization - Atlantis.
You can learn about climatic changes from the program "Climate control on ALLATRA TV"
Prepared by Tatiana Yakimanskaya, Solnechnogorsk, Russia.